Earth has constantly moving and shifting tectonic plates that have given our planet one of the most diverse surfaces than any other planet. The core size can be different in each planet. Life has yet to be discovered in any planets other than Earth. This lock is what causes the moon to always be facing the same way to Earth. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets. Space is a very strange place and things don’t work the same way as they do on earth! Earth; Mercury; Venus; Mars; Gas Giants. They are characterized by their dense, rocky composition. A planet is a celestial body that orbits around a star. During the high tides, they decide to stay in the … The difference between the two planets is that runaway greenhouse effect on Venus allows temperatures over 480 degrees C, whereas Mars never goes higher than 20 degrees C. The variation is also credited to the density of the two atmospheres. These are rocks rich in silicon and oxygen. Jupiter and Saturn are the outer gas giants.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'planetsforkids_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',198,'0','0'])); Uranus and Neptune are the outer ice giants. The atmosphere of Venus is mostly made up of carbon dioxide and has clouds of sulfuric acid droplets. Interesting Inner Planets Facts: The solar system is believed to have formed roughly 4.568 billion years ago. Venera 15 1983: Soviet twins Venera 15 and 16 orbiters, the mission was to use radar to create a detailed map of the surface of Venus with a resolution of 1-2 km or around 1 mile. Jupiter; Saturn; Uranus; Neptune; Dwarf Planets. As far as anyone knows, this flip hasn’t caused harm to Earth’s life, and another one isn’t likely to happen for at least another thousand years. These are the inner planets closest to the Sun. Jupiter and Saturn have layers of molecular hydrogen and liquid metallic hydrogen under their atmospheres. A critical requirement is that they have a heavy core made up of mostly iron and that a portion of that core be in a molten state. A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets accepted by the IAU are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Deimos is strangely shaped and is covered in loose dirt that sometimes fills in the craters on its surface. Deimos is around half the size of Phobos and its orbit is 2 ½ times farther away. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The solar wind distorts the magnetic field so that if you looked at it in space it would be a teardrop shape. terrestrial planet (inner planet) The term used to classify the four inner, rocky Earth-like planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) of the solar system, which, relative to the jovian (or outer) planets are smaller, have high densities, are composed of metallic (mainly iron) and silicate phases, and have low contents of gaseous elements. They established three rules that are required for life: liquid water, some source of energy such as our sun, and a source of food. Strangely, there have been many attempts at sending robotic spacecraft that have failed, but we are pleased to say that many also succeeded including: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Opportunity rover, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Curiosity rover, Mars Orbiter Mission, MAVEN and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. While many of our planets have played a part in legend and stories, Mercury seems to have been a focus of our collective imaginations. However, in the past number of years experts have discovered Earth lifeforms that live outside of these ideas. These satellites observe the atmosphere, glaciers, oceans, and the solid earth. A “planetary system” is a group of non-stellar objects (planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and cosmic dust) that orbit around a star, the sun is classified as a star. Mars may have supported life in the past, but there is no evidence that conditions have ever been life-friendly on Mercury or Venus. Magellan 1989: Accomplished its mission as the first to ever arrive and map Venus’ entire surface. The planet Venus has “domes” that are thought to have been created when lava pushed rock to the surface. The most notable of the situations was the 1938 radio drama of the H.G. To determine if some of these worlds have atmospheres, oceans or other signs of habitability, it takes more investigation. In one of the series Calvin and his friend Susie give a class presentation about Mercury, and Calvin fills the presentation with very questionable information such as: “The planet Mercury was named after a Roman god with winged feet,” says Calvin. Planets. Venera 16 1983: Soviet twins Venera 15 and 16 orbiters, the mission was to use radar to create a detailed map of the surface of Venus with a resolution of 1-2 km or around 1 mile. Extensive research has gone into the idea that the atmosphere on Mars might also have an impact on the presence of liquid water. During the formation of the solar system, there were likely more terrestrial planetoids, but they either merged with each other or were destroyed. Other civilizations throughout history have also named the planet due to its color. Many of these satellites are also communication satellites, bringing us our cable television and our cell phone service. Are you in the mood to learn more about the Solar System? Each time you look up to the sky and see a star you are looking at a sun in another galaxy. It’s believed that the planets were formed around 4.5 billion years ago. This indicates that there are traces of what once was a magnetic field around 4 billion years ago. It is often said that they are similar to Earth. The landscape is rather dusty and the temperatures on the surface can reach as high as 880 degrees F/471 degrees C. The Earth is made up of four main layers, beginning with the planet’s inner core which is enveloped by the outer core, then the mantle, and finally the crust. The atmosphere acts as a protective barrier, shielding the Earth from the impacts of meteoroids as many burn up before they have a chance to hit Earth’s surface. Facts about the Terrestrial Planets. Discovering the nature of our home planet has been the topic of many books, movies, and television shows. You could stretch the crater from the U.S. West Coast all the way to the East Coast. However, it is thought that Mars may have once had life and there is a possibility that life may still be on Mars today. Our atmosphere is also responsible for both short-term and long-term weather effects on the Earth. It’s guessed that when a flip does occur, compass needles will point in many different directions for a few centuries until everything settles down; and then the compasses will point south instead of north. Mars has the largest mountain in the solar system called Olympus Mons. Scientists believe that they have found evidence that shows that part of the metallic core is molten or liquid. Venus is covered in valleys, mountains and tens of thousands of volcanoes. (Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Today we often call Mars the “Red Planet” due to the iron minerals on the surface. The temperature of the inner core is as high as 9,800 degrees F/5,400 degrees C. Surrounding the inner core is the outer core, which is 1,400 mi/2,300 km thick. Mars does have two small moons: Phobos and Deimos. It takes around eight minutes for light that leaves the sun to reach the Earth. Venus Express 2005: The (ESA) European Space Agency’s Venus Express is studying the Venus atmosphere including the surface to the ionosphere. We do have one dwarf planet in our solar system that is thought to be a terrestrial-type world. This is a hot, thick mixture of molten rock that has the consistency of caramel and is around 1,800 mi/2,900 km thick. All rights reserved. The liquid metallic hydrogen layers also conduct electricity. During the Mariner 10 mission it discovered evidence that Mercury has a magnetic field. Both Mars and Earth have permanent polar ice caps. Interesting facts about the terrestrial planets In the solar system, there are four objects that are called the terrestrial planets: Mercury (the smallest), Venus and Mars, and Earth (the largest). After Earth, Mercury is the second densest planet in our solar system. We give credit to the plant life on Earth for generating the large amount of oxygen. Mercury is the first of the four terrestrial planets. It is the only planet named after a female and it’s thought that it was because it is the brightest planet. These ideas led to more stories, books, movies, and television shows than any other planet. Above the core is a mantle that consists of hot rock similar to lava that churns slowly due to the interior heat of the planet. Thanks to the Mars Rovers we have been able to see the smooth look of the northern hemisphere and can see that it doesn’t have very many craters. They can be so strong that it can take months before all of the dust settles. Scientists don’t think that they will ever find living things on Mars as the conditions aren’t good enough for life to thrive. It was named about the Roman messenger god that was known for moving fast, because the planet orbited the sun more quickly than other planets. Phobos is the largest moon and the one closest to Mars. Earth is an average distance of 93 million mi/150 million km from the sun or one AU (astronomical unit). To be considered as a terrestrial planet it needs to share the following characteristics: a heavy molten core, volcanoes, thick or thin atmospheres, craters, mountains, canyons, few or no moons, no rings. They must also have a hard surface and possible atmosphere. None of the terrestrial planets in our solar system have any rings. The Sun; The Moon; Moon Phases; Objects. It has an iron core that accounts for about 3/4 of its diameter. We have named a lot of these craters for famous people, including authors, musicians, and artists. However, the southern hemisphere is the exact opposite, with a lot more craters as well as highlands. http://www.softschools.com/facts/space/inner_planets_facts/2411/. Above the rocky mantle is the crust made up of iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium. Mercury’s core is metallic with a radius of around 1,289 mi/2,074 km, which is about 85% of the planet’s entire radius. Terrestrial Planet is a planet that is made mostly of silicate rocks or metal, with a solid surface. During the photosynthesis process, plants consume carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. An AU is the distance from the Sun to the Earth. The Ozone layer protects Earth and life from the extremes of solar radiation. None of the terrestrial planets in our solar system have ring systems. Comparisons have shown that the magnetic field is only around 1% of Earth’s, but it’s highly active, being responsible for the solar wind tornados on the surface of Mercury. Earth’s atmosphere protects us from meteoroids and radiation from the Sun. If you look around our Earth you can see that we have an incredible amount of life that exists on both the land and within the waterways and seas. Another name for Mars is “The Red Planet.” Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system and Mars is the second smallest planet. It is also thought that at one time, Mars may have had an atmosphere strong enough to support water on the planet’s surface. It’s the iron in the Martian dirt that has oxidized or rusted that causes it to look red. The Solar System. Wedged in between the outer core and the crust is the mantle which is the thickest of all of the layers. They are made mostly of silicate rocks and metals, with solid surfaces and atmospheres that range from thick (on Venus) to very thin (on Mercury). In our solar system, there are four terrestrial planets, which also happen to be the four closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. However, the magnetic polarity of the Earth doesn’t always stay the same, and the magnetic field can flip. The terrestrial plants have a central core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust. If you were on another planet looking back at our solar system, you would see our sun as a star.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'planetsforkids_org-box-3','ezslot_0',197,'0','0'])); It’s believed that every sun has planets orbiting it. At the surface we see colors such as gold, tan, and brown. Mars has the largest mountain in the solar system called Olympus Mons. It’s the molten state that creates the currents of energy as the planet rotates. Once the ions hit the surface, they imbalance the atoms that are neutrally charged and quickly send them back into the sky. 1974-1975 Mariner 10: The spacecraft orbited Mercury three times and mapped around half of the surface of Mercury. It has a distinctive red color and was therefore associated with battles and war and named after the Roman god of war. The ocean’s bottom has a thinner crust and it extends about 3 mi/5 km from the floor of the sea to the top of the mantle. This movement creates the volcanoes. The planets closest to the Sun—Venus, Earth, and Mars—are the other three. Here are some interesting facts about our solar system. The animated television show “Invader Zim,” has Mercury being changed into a giant ship prototype spaceship by an extinct group of Martians. Earth’s Ozone layer consists of a special kind of oxygen that helps to absorb the harmful UV rays from the sun. The inner core is around 759 mi/1,221 km in radius and is a solid sphere of nickel and iron metals. Around 30 mi from the surface, the clouds have about the same temperature as we find on Earth’s surface. Terrestrial planets have surfaces that are rocky and may also have atmospheric gases.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'planetsforkids_org-box-4','ezslot_6',187,'0','0'])); It’s thought that many civilizations recognized the planet Mercury as far back as 5,000 years. Our Solar System includes the Sun and the planetary system revolving around it. It’s though that the Earth’s magnetic field is due to the planet’s core, which is made up of nickel-iron, combined with the fast rotation of the Earth. Scientists think that there could be up to as many as 40 billion such worlds in our Milky Way galaxy. Ceres; Pluto; Haumea; Makemake; Eris; Solar System. Ceres is covered in countless small, young craters, no larger than 280 kilometers or 175 miles in diameter. Earth is the only known planet to support life and was formed around 4.54 billion years ago. The layer above the core is called the “mantle” and is usually made of silicate rocks. Since 1992 over four thousand exoplanets have been discovered (4,395 planets in 3,242 planetary systems including 720 multiple planetary systems as of 1 January 2021). Even the comic strip “Calvin and Hobbes” has mention of Mercury. When you stare at the surface of Mercury, you can’t help but realize that it resembles that of our moon. The outer core is made up of iron and nickel fluids. Mars doesn’t have any rings, however, it’s thought that in 50 million years, when Phobos either breaks apart or crashes into Mars, it might create a dusty ring around Mars. Venus has acid rain that is created in the clouds within its atmosphere. Facts about the Planets. The list of authors include: Isaac Asimov, C.S. Even though it’s the second planet closest to the sun, it is the single hottest planet within our solar system. In the 1800s, when people first thought that there were canal-like features on the surface of Mars, they thought that these were the proof that intelligent alien species lived on the planet. The four innermost planets of our solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are called the “terrestrial” planets. Terrestrial Planets. Early 20th century science fiction writers also loved using Venus as a popular destination in their books. Venera 13 1981: Designed similarly to the previous Soviet twin missions, Venera 13 and 14 were spacecraft to accomplish Venus flybys. These planets are those closest to the Sun. Vega 2 1984: The sister spacecraft to Vega 1, with an almost identical mission as Vega 1. Originally created by Gene Roddenberry, Star Trek uses Earth as a leading member of The Federation of Planets, and the many spaceships that head out to explore galaxies and beyond. While it has just 1% of the strength of our Earth’s magnetosphere, it does interact with the solar wind magnetic field so that it can create really intense magnetic tornadoes. The discovery of large volcanoes on Mars shows that the planet had active tectonic plates at one time in its history. Mars:eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'planetsforkids_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_8',176,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'planetsforkids_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_9',176,'0','1'])); The core at Mars’ center is very dense and is between 930 and 1,300 mi/1,500 to 2,100 km in radius. Galileo 1989: The orbiter included ten science instruments as well as an atmospheric probe to study Jupiter, its moons, and the magnetosphere as it orbited. It’s believed that the name “Earth” is around 1,000 years old. This was, of course, before science had discovered how horrible the surface and atmosphere was. Akatsuki 2010: The Venus Climate Orbiter mission (PLANET-C), or “AKATSUKI”, is studying Venus’ atmospheric circulation. Wells book, “The War of the Worlds.”, The broadcast was so realistic that many listeners though that there really was an invasion of Earth by Martians, and went into a panic. Asteroids; Asteroid Types. Our terrestrial planets may be higher in density that the gas giants, but unlike the name, the gas giants aren’t completely made up of gas. Learn about Terrestrial Planets: Definition & Facts about the Inner Planets for kids Even with the intense heat and temperature fluctuations, there are still locations on Mercury that are permanently shaded from the Sun’s heat. Terrestrial Planets … Venera 12 1978: Soviet mission with a twin Venera 11, to accomplish a flyby and then a lander to explore the ionosphere, atmosphere, and surface of Venus. Earth is the most hospitable to life. There may be other areas that have water ice, however, the orbit of MESSENGER didn’t include probing the southern pole. Planets are created when gravity pulls dust and swirling gas together. In January 2014, water vapor was detecte… If you could stand on the ground on Venus, you would look around and it would appear like a very overcast and hazy day on Earth, however, due to the heavy atmosphere, you would feel like you were 1 mi/1.6 km under water. The dwarf planet is made up mostly from ice and rock, with a rocky interior and an icy exterior. They are also called internal, solid-state, opposing the external gas giant planets. The atmosphere of Mars is quite similar to that of Venus. Between the mixtures and density, the clouds reflect around 60% of the sunlight that hits Venus back out into space. NASA’s InSight arrived on November 26, 2018, with communications support from the twin MarCO cubesats, the first CubeSats sent into Deep Space. Inner planets have a mostly iron core, surrounded by a mantle. Q. Terrestrial planets have metallic cores of mostly iron, with rocky mantles and crusts. This soil is dusty and when it is kicked into the atmosphere during storms the planet turns a reddish color. Our solar system is composed of four terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/overview/, https://www.space.com/17028-terrestrial-planets.html, https://space-facts.com/terrestrial-planets/, http://www.softschools.com/facts/space/inner_planets_facts/2411/, Our solar system’s terrestrial planets have an orbit that is relatively close to our sun and are also called the “Inner Planets.”. In recent years, astronomers have designed a new class called the “dwarf planets.” These are smaller worlds, not quite big enough to be considered a standard planet, and include Pluto. Mars actually has many more colors than just the “red” that most people use to describe it. When these particles are trapped in the magnetic field of the Earth they collide with the molecules in the air above the Earth’s magnetic poles. The surface is covered with a lot of craters that that were caused by collisions with comets and meteoroids. The slowing down process will have an effect on the length of our days, however, it will take around 140 million years before we see a day change from 24 hours to 25 hours. The inner planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. In other words, they are the most Earth-like. We have had an international fleet of spacecraft that have orbited and some that have landed on Mars, including the robotic rovers. Terrestrial planets are also called “telluric planets or rocky planets.” These planets have to consist of a majority of silicate rocks or metals. The red color is due to oxidization or rusting of the iron rocks and as it rusts it creates the Martian “soil” which is called regolith. Earth has constantly moving and shifting tectonic plates that have given our planet one of the most diverse surfaces than any other planet. There are 4 known terrestrial planets in our solar system – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars , which are all inner planets and one terrestrial dwarf planet, Ceres, located in … The surface of Mars is a reddish-brown color due to the rusting process of the surface minerals. The hottest planet … TV and movie writers also seemed to be enthralled with the little planet as part of their scripts. Venera 14 1981: Identical to its twin, Venera 13, the Soviet mission of the spacecraft was carried out as it had three corrections midcourse on its way to Venus. The 2014 novel that became the movie adaptation in 2015 of “The Martian” involved a botanist that was left stranded on Mars and his struggle to survive while he awaits rescue. Kids Fun Facts Corner # 1. These lifeforms live in conditions that were previously thought to be uninhabitable, and they are called “extremophiles.”. Earth’s atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and trace amounts of other gases including carbon dioxide, argon, and neon. There have been more missions to Mars than any other planet. This means it is a planet made mostly of rock. The makeup of the terrestrial planets consists of a mostly iron central core and a next layer called the mantle usually consisting of silicate rocks that are rich in oxygen and silicon. The Mars temperature can reach as high as 70 degrees F/20 degrees C and as low as -225 degrees F/-153 degrees C. The atmosphere is so thin that any heat from the sun quickly escapes the planet. https://www.space.com/17028-terrestrial-planets.html The surfaces of terrestrial planets have mountains, craters, canyons, and volcanoes. Scientists studying geological records have seen that there is a magnetic reversal every 400,000 years or so. In this video, we will learn about terrestrial planets. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is one of the terrestrial planets. One idea of the source of the name is that the word “Earth” is an old Germanic word that really just means “the ground.”. Earth has remained as a base for other space exploration stories, including the iconic “Star Trek” series. Outer Planets (or Gas giants) –the planets outside of the asteroid belt. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'planetsforkids_org-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_7',192,'0','0']));Another thought is that the name “Earth” is derived from the Old English word “ertha” as well as the Anglo-Saxon word “erda”, which means soil or ground. It’s the Earth’s magnetic field that causes the compass needles to point to the North Pole, no matter which way that you turn. These storms funnel the hot solar wind plasma down to the planet’s surface. Copyright 2019 Planet For Kids. There are a lot of similarities between Venice and Earth, and one of the most notable is its structure. It is moving slowly toward Mars and it’s believed that in about 50 million years it will either break apart or crash into Mars. The craters on Mars range in sizes but it also has the biggest known crater in the solar system, called Valles Marineris. The surface is a bulging thin rock crust that moves as the mantle shifts. C-type Asteroids; M-type Asteroids; Near-Earth Asteroids; S-type Asteroids; Icarus (Asteroid) Kirkwood Gap; Comets; Constellations. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These are Earth-sized as well as called “super-Earth” and exist throughout the galaxy. Terrestrial planets are Earth-like planets made up of rocks or metals with a hard surface. Earth isn’t too hot and isn’t too cold, and this is often called the “Goldilocks distance.” Our moon has created the tides on Earth, which in turn has helped life to develop. Terrestrial planets exist around other stars. Scientists have always based our definition of “life” as the carbon-based type that we have around us, including ourselves. The well-known movie (and its sequels) “Planet of the Apes” occurs in a future where our astronauts find that intelligent apes have taken over the world and the primitive animals are the human beings. )A year on the planet nearest to TRAPPIST-1 would last just 1.5 Earth days. In 2012, NASA’s spacecraft MESSENGER found water ice in the craters around the north pole of Mercury. There are two broad layers of atmosphere on Venus including one layer that is a cloud bank covering the entire plant, and another that includes everything that is below the cloud bank. Another Mars tale on television and in books was “The Expanse.” Other stories that have taken place on Mars were transitioned to movies such as the 1990 “Total Recall” and the remake in 2012. There is one dwarf planet considered to be terrestrial-type world: Ceres. The outer shell or mantle and crust is around 250 mi/400 km thick. In many tales, writers have left the Earth as destroyed or abandoned. Even though Earth and Venus share similar size and seem to have similarly-sized iron cores, Earth’s faster rotation allows us a stronger magnetosphere. Television has also picked up on the idea of intelligent creatures on Mars with the 1966 series “My Favorite Martian.”. The magnetic field of Earth is incredibly powerful and also plays a big part in protecting our planet from the effects of solar wind. Between these two main groups is a belt of numerous small bodies called asteroids. Some astronomers search for extrasolar planets that may be conducive to life, narrowing the search to terrestrial planets within the habitable zone of their star. Even Disney fans will remember the animated film “The Princess and the Frog,” where the firefly, Ray falls in love with Venus, “the evening star”, whom he mistakes as another firefly. Conditions on the two closest planets to the Sun, Mercury and Venus, are too harsh and extreme to harbor any form of life. They are also called ‘inner planets’. The moons are shaped like potatoes and have such a small mass that their own gravity can’t make them spherical like our Earth’s moon. 2004 Messenger Probe: The probe orbited Mercury for four years, sending an incredible amount of data back to Earth before it crashed into the surface. Vega 1 1984: The most ambitious deep space mission by the Soviets with twin spacecraft designed with redundant mission goals. It is similar to Earth’s highest mountain, Mount Everest. One of the most distinctive features on Mars is its “channels.” These channels look like they could have been made by running water. Scientists believe that life not only developed but adapted and thrived on Earth because of our uniquely perfect distance from the sun and the gravitational effects that the moon had on the planet. The rotation of the moon around the Earth has caused an effect that is called being “tidally locked” so that the orbit and rotation periods are the same. It has a rocky core and an outer mantle, with surface features such as craters and mountains. Surrounding the core is the planet’s rocky mantle which is between 770-1,170 mi/1,240-1,880 km thick. There are seven planets in orbit around TRAPPIST-1. The term “Terrestrial” is made of Latin word for Earth “Terra”. The type of atmospheres of terrestrial planets depend on the planet’s distance from the sun, the radius, the mass, the amount of geological activity, and surface organisms. Find out more about the inner planets by selecting one below: The Ultimate List of TV Shows set in Space or on Other Planets, The Planets and Moons of Star Wars to Scale, The terrestrial planets in our solar system orbit relatively close to the Sun, this gives them their other name; the “Inner Planets”. Mars is also home to the largest known volcano in the solar system called Olympus Mons. There are a lot of science fiction writers that have used the smallest planet in our solar system for inspiration for their novels. 2. The Moon is similar, but has a much smaller iron core. # 3. In Ancient Greek, the word “Phobos” translates to “flight,” and “Deimos” translates to “fear.”. It’s heavily cratered with many deep surface grooves. https://space-facts.com/terrestrial-planets/ Terrestrial Planet is a planet that is made mostly of silicate rocks or metal, with a solid surface. It can be easily said that Mars has captured the collective imagination of humans more than any other planet. Terrestrial planets are also known as Telluric or Rocky planets. NASA, India, and ESA (European Space Agency) have spacecraft orbiting above Mars. Of all of the terrestrial planets, Earth is the densest and Mars is the second densest. 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